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Tasks that have perceived value, such as instructional value, utility value, or goal-achievement value, have a greater effect on student engagement. Mastery goal-orientation fosters thinking patterns that sustain involvement and help students pursue beneficial learning tasks. Students who perceive that their classrooms have a mastery goal-orientation are more likely to use effective learning strategies, prefer challenging tasks, and believe in the effectiveness of their effort.
Performance-approach goals are beneficial while performance-avoidance goals have negative relationships with engagement and achievement. The three types of performance-approach goals (ability, normative, and outcome) have varying effects on engagement.
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